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World Atlas: Somalia

World Atlas: Somalia. On this page you can see the map, country flag and many detailed information about the people, history and economy of Somalia.

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Information about Somalia

Here you can find online selected information about the geography, inhabitants, government, economy and history of Somalia. Included are selected statistics, an overview map and the detailed map of Somalia. But let's start with the flag of Somalia here:

Somalia - Overview:

What you should know about Somalia? Let's start with this: Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims the regions of Sool and Sanaag, and portions of Togdheer. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in south-central Somalia) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President Yusuf resigned late in 2008 while UN-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders replaced the TFP by appointing 275 members to a new parliament who subsequently elected a new president.

Geography of Somalia

Where on the globe is Somalia? The location of this country is Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia. Total area of Somalia is 637,657 sq km, of which 627,337 sq km is land. So this is quite a large country. How could we describe the terrain of the country? This way: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north. The lowest point of Somalia is Indian Ocean 0 m, the highest point Shimbiris 2,416 m. And the climate is principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons.


Inhabitants of Somalia

Let's take a look how many people live in Somalia. The number is: 11,031,386. So this is not very populous country. Who lives here? Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs). What are the languages in Somalia? Somali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English. And the religions: Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter). How old are the people in average? 18.1 years. We have to add that this number is the median - so one half of the people is older than this, one half is younger. And what is their life expectancy (at birth)? This: 52.8 years. Where the people live in Somalia? Here: distribution varies greatly throughout the country; least densely populated areas are in the northeast and central regions, as well as areas along the Kenyan border; most populated areas are in and around the cities of Mogadishu, Marka, Boorama, Hargeysa, and Baidoa. The major urban areas of Somalia are: Mogadishu (capital) 2.138 million; Hargeysa 760,000 (2015).

Government and Economy of Somalia

The capital of Somalia is Mogadishu and the government type federal parliamentary republic. Let's take a look at the administrative divisions - 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed. Regarding the economy of Somalia, important industrial products are light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication. Important agricultural products are bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish. The most important export commodities are livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal and the most important export partners are Saudi Arabia 37.2%, Oman 22.7%, UAE 16.3% (2016). The most important import commodities are manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat and the most important import partners are India 26.3%, China 20.8%, Oman 9.1%, Kenya 8.3%, Turkey 6%, Malaysia 4.3%, Brazil 4.2% (2016). How rich is Somalia and how rich are people in this country? The most important number here is GDP per capita (PPP): $NA (2017 est.). Let's add that this means Gross Domestic Product per person, which is recalculated with respect to the relative cost of local goods and services. And one more important number - population below poverty line: NA%.


Map of Somalia



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